Carrots are some of my favorite vegetables. We get them regularly in our CSA (consumer sustainable agriculture) box, and they look and taste delicious. The carrots from my CSA are colored so much deeper and richer, that I am accustomed to. The farmers keeps the greens on top and they almost look like an inverted bouquet; a far cry from the sanitized carrots in a plastic bag of my youth.
Did you know that carrots were not always orange? Those wonderful colored carrots found in gourmet grocery stores and farmers markets that are white, red, purple – just about any color other than orange may be considered true carrot colors. Apparently to honor their leader, William of Orange, the Dutch cultivated the carrot to grow in that lovely color of orange. Given the newly devised specimen offered a few advantages such as better taste, and it did not leech its color onto cookware; it was quickly adopted by Western cooks as the carrot of choice.
Some proponents argue that the Dutch stealthily created the orange carrot to nationalize this popular vegetable. A more plausible belief is that Dutch horticulturists found a mutant orange colored carrot variety, and selectively breed to develope a consistently orange carrot. Along the way, with a little help from cross-breeding, they refined and intensified the orange color we know today.
The carrot is a root vegetable with a crisp texture when fresh. The edible part of a carrot is a taproot, which is a domesticated form of the wild carrot native to Europe and southwestern Asia. This biennial plant grows a rosette of leaves in the spring and summer, while building up the stout taproot that stores enough sugars for the plant to flower in the second year. The flowering stem grows to about 1 metre (3′) tall, with white flowers that produce a fruit called a mericarp.
Uses and nutrition
The possible ways to eat carrots seem endless: raw, boiled, mashed, sliced, diced, sauteed, sweet to savory … baby food to pet food. The carrot gets its characteristic bright orange colour from β-carotene, which is metabolised into vitamin A in humans. Note the other colored carrots do not have this level of β-carotene so do not offer the same nutritional benefits – this was another reason that the orange carrots of today were readily adopted. Carrots of all colors are also rich in dietary fibre, antioxidants, and minerals. Lack of Vitamin A can cause poor vision, including night vision, but vision can be restored by modifying the diet to include Vitamin A.
Close Family Members
In early use, carrots were grown for their aromatic leaves and seeds, not their roots. Some relatives of the carrot are still grown in this manner such as parsley, fennel, dill and cumin. Parsnips as you might have guessed are also a relative.
Fun Carrot Facts
- The world’s largest carrot was grown in Palmer, Alaska by John Evans in 1998, weighing 8.6 kg (19#).
- The world’s longest carrot recorded in 2007 was 5.839 meters (19’~2″) by Joe Atherton, UK
- Holtville, CA calls itself the “Carrot Capital of the World”, and holds an annual festival devoted to the carrot.
- The wild ancestor of the carrot most probably came from Afghanistan.
- Carrots were first grown as medicine, not food.
- Carrots produce more distilled spirits than potatoes.
- Mel Blanc, the voice of Bugs Bunny, did not like carrots.
- Too many carrots can cause hypercarotenemia, a condition in which the skin turns orange.
- The urban legend that says eating large amounts of carrots will allow one to see in the dark stemmed from stories of British gunners in World War II who shot down German planes at night. The legend arose during the Battle of Britain when the RAF circulated a story about their pilots’ carrot consumption to cover up the use of radar in engaging enemy planes. The rumors reinforced German folklore and encouraged Britons—looking to improve their night vision to eat the vegetable.
Carrot cultivars are grouped into two classes, eastern carrots and western carrots.
Eastern carrots were domesticated in Central Asia, probably in modern-day Afghanistan, around the 10th century. Eastern carrot are commonly purple or yellow, and often have branched roots. Their purple color comes from anthocyanin pigments.
Western carrots came later than Eastern their brethran. While orange carrots are the norm in the West, other colors including white, yellow, red, and purple – all of which existed first. However, given oranges enormous popularity, these varieties are raised primarily as novelty crops. Western carrots are commonly classified by their root shape:
- Chantenay carrots are shorter than other cultivars, but have greater girth, sometimes growing up to 8 cm (3″) in width. They have a broad top tapering to a blunt, rounded tip. They are commonly diced for use in prepared foods.
- Danvers carrots have a conical shape, having well-defined shoulders and tapering to a point at the tip. They are somewhat shorter than Imperator cultivars, but more tolerant of heavy soil. Danvers are often puréed as baby food. They were developed in 1871 in Danvers, Massachusetts.
- Imperator carrots are the most common carrot sold in U.S. grocery stores; their roots are longer than other carrots, and taper to a point.
- Nantes carrots are nearly cylindrical in shape, and are blunt and rounded at both ends. Nantes are often sweeter than other carrots.
Carrot Top Soup
Serves 4 (recipe from Local Flavors by Deborah Madion)
1 bunch small to medium sized carrots with tops and roots
2 T butter
3 T white rice
2 large leeks, white part only
2 sprigs thyme
2 T chopped dill, parslet, celery leaves or lovage
salt and pepper
6 c homemade vegetable stock
Pluck the lacey leaves of the carrot greens off their stems, so you have between 2 -3 cups, loosely packed. Wash, then finely chop and grate the carrots.
Melt butter in stock pot. Add carrot tops and carrots, rice, leeks, thyme and dill. Cook for several minutes, stirring occassionally, season with 1 ½ tsp salt. Add the stock. Bring to boil, and simmer until rice is cooked ~ 15 minutes.
Season to taste and serve.
Amsterdam is one of my favorite cities. For me, a big part of the appeal is the ability to walk from one neighborhood to another and see the flow and changes. I’ll never forget my first visit, exiting from Centraal station to a nippy sunny day and seeing all the bicyclists. I also got my first glimpse of the very impractical, circular bike for six.
Amsterdam is the capital, and largest city of the Netherlands. Its name is derived from Amstel dam, which indicates the city’s origin: a dam in the river Amstel where the Dam Square is today. Amsterdam became one of the world’s most important ports during the Dutch Golden Age because of its innovative trading ideas. During that time, the city led the world in finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city expanded, adding new neighborhoods and suburbs. Amsterdam’s main attractions, include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, Anne Frank’s House, its red-light district, and its many cannabis coffee shops, draws 4.2 million tourists annually, making it the 5th busiest tourist destination in Europe.
The river Amstel terminates in the city center into numerous canals before winding up in the IJ. Amsterdam is justly famous for these canals, allowing it to thrive at only 2 meters above sea level.
De Wallen, also known as Walletjes or Rosse Buurt, is designated for legalized prostitution and is Amsterdam’s largest and most famous red-light district. It consists of a network of roads and alleys containing several hundred small, one-room apartments rented by female sex workers who offer their services from behind a window or glass door, typically illuminated with red lights. The area has numerous sex shops, theaters, peep shows, museums, and the cannabis coffee shops. On my first visit, I had no idea what to expect, and I thought there would literally be flashing lights alerting me to the fact that I was entering the red light district. I found no such thing. Instead, it slowly dawned on me that I in the midst of the district while taking a stroll after dinner, when the tableaux in the windows got to be very interesting. To say, I had never seen anything like this in the Midwest was an understatement, and it also served as a lesson that I really needed to pay more attention when I strolled.
This rapid transition of neighborhoods made me appreciate how compact these cities really are. Growing up in Rochester, Minnesota, home of the Mayo Clinic, we had many visitors from Europe, and it was obvious that we operated based on different geographical scales. Several visitors expressed their desire to drive to Disneyland for the weekend, only to report back that they made it to Missouri before giving up.
If you know one thing about the Dutch, know they have a long, passionate and tulmultous relationship with tulips. Well, really, who could blame them? Tulips were introduced to Europe in the mid-16th century via the Ottoman Empire, and became very popular in what is now the Netherlands. Tulip cultivation started around 1593 after the Flemish botanist Charles de l’Écluse accepted a post at the University of Leiden and established the hortus academicus. There, he planted his tulip bulbs—sent to him from Turkey by the Emperor’s ambassador to the Sultan —which could tolerate the local climate, and soon after they gained popularity.
The flower rapidly became a coveted luxury item and status symbol, and a profusion of varieties followed. They were classified in groups; one-coloured tulips of red, yellow, or white were known as Couleren, and considered relatively ho hum. It was the multicoloured Rosen (red or pink on white background), Violetten (purple or lilac on white background), and, to a lesser extent, the Bizarden (red, brown or purple on yellow background) that sparked unheard of zeal. These spectacular and highly sought-after tulip bulbs would flowers with vivid colors, lines, and flames on the petals, as a result of being infected with a tulip-specific virus known as the “Tulip breaking virus”, a type of mosaic virus.
Tulips grow from bulbs, and can be propagated through both seeds and buds. Seeds from a tulip will form a flowering bulb after 7–12 years. When a bulb grows into the flower, the original bulb disappears, replaced by a clone bulb and several buds. Properly cultivated, these buds become bulbs themselves. Tulips bloom in April and May for only about a week, and the secondary buds appear shortly thereafter. Bulbs can be uprooted and moved between June to September, and the actual purchases (in the spot market) occurred during these months.
Dutch cuisine like English cuisine has a bad rap. Dutch national dishes tend to be ungarnished, hearty, and wholesome — solid stuff, but, well – bland. A perfect example is erwtensoep, a thick pork-accented pea soup that offers warmth against cold Dutch winters. Similarly, hutspot a stew of potatoes, carrots, and onions is straighforward nourishment. Hutspot main ingredient – the potato – along with some good stories insures its continued popularity.
Seafood, as you might imagine is a big deal. You can expect to find, depending on season, Zeeland oysters and mussels (Zeeuwsoesters and Zeeuwsmosselen), and herring pickled or “new” – fresh from the North Sea and eaten raw. If you happen to be in Holland for the start of the herring season in June, try a “green” (raw) herring with onions from a fish stall, or haringhuis. Look for signs that say “Hollandse Nieuwe” (Holland’s New). Great excitement surrounds the season’s first catch, divided between the queen and restaurateurs amid spirited competition. At fish stalls, you can get snacks of baked fish, smoked eel, and seafood salads – perfect for a make shift picnic.
The Indonesian rijsttafel is Holland’s favorite feast; it has been ever since sea captains introduced it to the wealthy Amsterdam burghers in the 17th century. The rijsttafel (literally, “rice table”) originated with Dutch plantation overseers in Indonesia, who liked to sample local cuisine. It became a tradition upheld by Indonesian migrants to Holland who opened restaurants and, knowing the Dutch fondness for rijsttafel, shrewdly made it a standard menu item. Rijsttafels are only a small part of an Indonesian restaurant’s menu, and there’s a trend among the Dutch to consider them as “just for tourists”. However, rijsttafels remain popular, and many other ethnic restaurants have adopted the idea.
The basic concept of a rijsttafel is to graze and appreciate the blending flavors and textures. A simple, unadorned bed of rice is the foundation of all the dishes. The dishes are small and the portions are based on the number of people expected to share. The idea is to sample many things, not fixate on a single item. Also, an Indonesian rijsttafelhas no separate courses. Once your table has been set, all the dishes arrive simultaneously, like a culinary tidlewave, and the diners are expected to plot their own course through the meal.
Among the customary dishes and ingredients of a rijsttafel are loempia (Chinese-style egg rolls); satay, or sateh (small pork kebabs, grilled and served with spicy peanut sauce); perkedel (meatballs); gado-gado (vegetables in peanut sauce); daging smoor (beef in soy sauce); babi ketjap (pork in soy sauce); kroepoek (crunchy, puffy shrimp toast); serundeng (fried coconut); roedjak manis (fruit in sweet sauce); and pisang goreng (fried banana).
You may be surprised at the number of Indoneasian restaurants, but remember the long history that binds these two countries. A fact I was grateful for, as I consumed many wonderful plates of nasi goering on my visits. This interest in Indonesian is no different that the British obsession with Indian curry.
A few traditional options
Croquetten — Fried croquettes of meat, prawns, or gooey cheese. They’re are at their best when served hot and accompanied with mustard for dunking. They do not warnl you, but they are also addicting.
Pannekoeken & Poffertjes — These Dutch pancakes are the equivalent of French crepes, and they’re served flat on a dinner plate, topped with powdered sugar, jam, syrup, hot apples, or in typical Dutch style with hot ginger sauce. Less common are pannekoeken with meat. Poffertjes are small fried-pancake “puffs” coated with powdered sugar and filled with syrup or liqueur.
Hutspot— A stew made of beef ribs, carrots, onions, and potatoes, often mashed together. This is a dish with historic significance, particularly for the people of Leiden: It’s the Dutch version of the stew found in the boiling pots left behind after the Spaniards were evicted after a long siege during the Eighty Years’ War. It was also popular during World War II as the pototaes, a key component, were hidden by virtue of the fact that they grew underground.
(great starter list on foods from Frommners)
You have only to start walking in any of the neighborhoods to experience Amsterdam’s rich architectural history. The oldest building in Amsterdam is het Houten Huys at the Begijnhof. This building was constructed around 1425 and is one of only two existing wooden buildings, and a rare example of gothic architecture in Amsterdam. In the 16th century, brick replaced wood buildings, following the Renaissance architectural style recognized for their façades which end at the top in a stairway shape – common in Dutch Renaissance style.
At the end of the nineteenth century, the Jugendstil style became popular (similar to Prague) and many new buildings were constructed. The last style that was popular in Amsterdam before the modern era was Art Deco, with Amsterdam’s version called the Amsterdamse School.
The old city’s center is the epicenter of all the architectural styles before the end of the nineteenth century. Jugendstil and Art Deco are mostly found outside the city’s center in the neighbourhoods built in the early twentieth century. To me this architecture is very unique and I really enjoyed heading to the suburbs to check out the buildings out first hand.
Like all Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is governed by a mayor, aldermen, and the municipal council. But, unlike most other Dutch municipalities, Amsterdam is subdivided into fifteen stadsdelen (boroughs), a system that was implemented in the 1980s to improve local governance. The stadsdelen are responsible for many activities that had previously been run by the central city. Local decisions are made at borough level, and only affairs pertaining to the whole city, such as major infrastructure projects, are handled by the central city council.
I am not certain Amsterdam is the only exception, but it is certainly unique in that, while the Dutch capital city, Amsterdam is not the seat of government. The Parliament and the Supreme Court are located in The Hague, along with the foreign embassies.
In 1578 the previously Roman Catholic city of Amsterdam joined the revolt against Spanish rule. In line with Protestant procedure of that time, all churches were “reformed” to the Protestant worship. Calvinism became the dominant religion, and although Catholicism was not forbidden and, the Catholic hierarchy was prohibited, leading to schuilkerken, covert churches, which hid behind seemingly ordinary facades. As they became established, other Christian denominations used converted Catholic chapels to conduct their own services. The oldest Church of England building outside the United Kingdom is at the Begijnhof.
In the second half of the 17th century, Amsterdam experienced an influx of Jews from Central and Eastern Europe, which continued into the 19th century. The first who arrived were refugees from the Chmielnicki Uprising in Poland, and the Thirty Years War. They not only founded their own synagogues, but influenced the ‘Amsterdam dialect’ adding a large Yiddish local vocabulary. Amsterdam’s nickname of Mokum, the Yiddish word for the Hebrew makom (“town”), is evidence of this integration. Most recent religious changes in Amsterdam are due to immigration from former colonies. Islam is the largest non-Christian religion. “Leven en laten leven” or “Live and let live” summarizes Dutch sensibilities. With 176 different nations represented, Amsterdam has more nationalities than any other city in the world.